The Best 10 Days of Dhul-Hijjah: Virtuous Acts, Fasting, and Eid al-Adha

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين

اللهم اجعلنا منهم

With the Name of God, The Infinitely Caring, Eternally Compassionate. We sincerely praise and thank God to the highest extent, and ask Him to bless, protect, honor, and compliment our Prophet and Messenger Muḥammad, his family, his companions, and those that diligently follow them until the end of times. Dear God, please include us from amongst them.

We are about to enter the greatest days of the year.

The 12th Islamic Month, Dhū Al-Ḥijjah, will start on Friday, June 7th. This is the month in which millions of Muslims set out to perform the Ritual Pilgrimage (Ḥajj). It is also the month in which we celebrate our 2nd Islamic Festival - Eid, ʿĪd Al-Aḍḥā. It is a month filled with following in the footsteps of the great grandfather of our Beloved Messenger ﷺ, Abraham (Ibrāhīm - May Allāh preserve his legacy[1]).

Dates[2]:

The key points of this article have been summarized in this video (note that the dates mentioned in the video are from last year): Shaykh Mudassir Mayet | Virtuous Acts #2: Dhul-Hijjah

Fasting on ʿArafah (9th of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah) - Saturday, June 15th

The Messenger of God ﷺ was asked about fasting on the day of ʿArafah[3]. He ﷺ answered: “It wipes away the sins of the past year and the coming year.”[4] ʿArafah will be on Saturday, June 15th this year. If you are able to, you should definitely try your best to fast on this day.

In addition to the 9th, we also know that, at least some years, the Messenger of God ﷺ fasted each of the first nine days of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah.[5] Anyone who is able to fast some, or all nine days, should try to do so.

Extra Reward for Extra Good Actions

The Messenger of God ﷺ said: “There are no days in which correct, righteous actions are more beloved to God than these ten days (first ten days of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah). The companions asked: “Not even Jihād in the path of God?” The Messenger of God ﷺ responded: “Not even Jihād in the path of God, except for someone who goes out with his life and wealth, and returns with neither.”[6] Here is a simple, nonexhaustive list of some extra good actions we can do.

Learning the Religion Reciting Qurʾān
Giving Charity Ṣalawāt - Sending Blessings on The Prophet ﷺ
Extra Prayers Volunteering
Dhikr - Remembering Allāh Going to the Masjid
Fasting Duʿāʾ - Asking Allāh
Tawbah - Repentance Reflection

Ritual Slaughter (Uḍḥiyah) for The Festival of Sacrifice (ʿĪd Al-Aḍḥā)

Allāh informs us about the greatness of this act by saying, “Neither the meat nor the blood (of your sacrifice) reaches God. Rather, it is your piety and devotion that reaches Him...”.[7] The physical act of slaughtering an animal is not the end goal in and of itself. That is to say that God doesn’t need or benefit from our act of slaughter. Far from it! He is beyond Perfection! Rather, Allāh wants to see us striving hard and trying our best to please Him. To see us utilizing our effort, wealth, and beloved possessions in His obedience in a manner that He ﷻ has prescribed.

The ritual slaughter (uḍḥiyah) is an individual obligation (wājib)[8] for anyone who has ~$7,289 in extra possessions[9]. One is responsible for the purchase of the animal, but does not have to personally slaughter the animal or personally distribute the meat. The slaughter must take place after the Eid Prayer, and may be done up until before Maghrib on the 12th of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah.[10] There are a handful of other rulings associated with this, but if you intend to outsource this act, you can assume that they will fulfill the rest of the criteria.

For anyone performing or purchasing the sacrifice (uḍḥiyah | qurbānī), it is a religiously recommended (sunnah) to not trim one's hair or nails during the first ten days of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah, until one’s sacrifice has been slaughtered.[11]

The vast majority of scholars do not place any restrictions on how the meat should be distributed. If one chooses to keep all the meat for his or her family to consume, that is completely acceptable. If one chooses to donate all the meat to people who are in need, that is also completely acceptable. There are statements from the Ṣaḥābah[12] (raḍiya Allāh ʿanhum[13]) which state that one third of the meat should be kept for oneself and their family, another third should be given as a gift, and the last third should be given to those who ask and those in need.[14] This is a recommendation from the Ṣaḥābah (raḍiya Allāh ʿanhum) and many scholars, but by no means an obligation.

Acceptable Animals for Ritual Slaughter (Uḍḥiyah)

Allāh ﷻ and the Prophet ﷺ have given us guidelines in regards to what animals are suitable for ritual slaughter (uḍḥiyah). This is partly because we want our acts of worship to have quality and standards in a show of our effort before Allāh ﷻ. Animals that are suitable fall under the category of Anʿām or livestock. This is a technical term in both Arabic and English referring to domesticated animals, typically raised for agricultural purposes. In the Qurʾān, Allāh refers to them as “... what He has provided for them in terms of four-legged livestock (bahīmah al-anʿām)”.[15] The Prophet ﷺ specified that the animal should be old enough[16], healthy, and with no physical defects[17].

In sum, any of the following animals are appropriate if they are domesticated and healthy, regardless of whether they are male or female[18]:

Lastly, we should know that the Prophet ﷺ has designated that a single lamb, sheep, ram, or goat will suffice for 1 person, and a single cow, bull, buffalo, or camel will suffice for 7 seven people.[24]

Reciting The Praises of The All Supreme (Takbīrāt)

From Fajr on the 9th of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah (Saturday, June 15th) until ʿAṣr on the 13th (Wednesday, June 19th), EVERYONE should recite the following phrase aloud after every prayer; every man, woman, child, regardless if one prayed in congregation or alone:

اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ

Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, lā ilāha illā Allāh, Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, wa li-llāh al-Ḥamd. God is Greater, God is Greater. There is no God except Allāh. God is Greater, God is Greater. Solely to God belongs the most perfect and complete praise and thanks.[25]

The 11th-13th of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah — Days of “Drying Meat” (Ayyām Al-Tashrīq)

These are the days that were originally used to dry the freshly slaughtered meat, so that it could be preserved (i.e., turned into jerky) for later consumption.

It is absolutely prohibited (Ḥarām | Makrūh Taḥrīmā) to fast on these days, including the joyous day of ʿĪd. So do NOT fast from Sunday, June 16th (10th) to Wednesday, June 19th (13th).

Recommended Actions (Sunan) of Our Beloved Messenger ﷺ for The Festival (Eid)

  1. Be extra clean. Shower (ghusl), brush your teeth, use miswāk, and smell good. The Prophet ﷺ compared Friday to Eid and told us: “This day [Friday] is a day of Eid and celebration. So whoever comes to the Friday prayer should bathe, apply perfume if they have any, and use the miswāk (tooth-stick).”[26] The Prophet ﷺ told us to be extra clean because it is an “Eid.” Therefore, on Eid al-Aḍḥā, we should follow this sunnah.
  2. Wear nice, clean clothes. It does not have to be new, but it should be clean, ironed, and nicer than your daily outfit[27]. In following this recommendation, ʿUmar (raḍiya Allāh ʿanh) once bought a nice outfit to give to the Prophet ﷺ and said, “wear it to look nice on Eid.”[28]
  3. Eat after the Eid prayer. Buraydah (raḍiya Allāh ʿanhu) tells us that the Prophet ﷺ would not eat on Eid al-Aḍḥā until after he ﷺ had prayed the Eid prayer.[29]
  4. Recite the takbīrāt of Eid. That is to say — اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَاَللهُ أَكْبَرُ اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ — Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, lā ilāha illā Allāh, Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, wa li-llāh al-Ḥamd. God is Greater, God is Greater. There is no God except Allāh. God is Greater, God is Greater. The most perfect and complete praise and thanks belongs solely to God.[30] It should be recited happily and aloud.
  5. Return home from a different route. The companion, Jābir (raḍiya Allāh ʿanh), told us that the Prophet ﷺ would take a different route when going to and returning from the Eid prayer area.[31] Someone can make their way to the Prayer Area via the freeway, and return via surface streets, for example. Or they can head towards the Prayer Area from one direction, and return home via the opposite direction.
  6. Meet and greet others with phrases of acceptance. Some of the Companions (raḍiya Allāh ʿanhum), upon meeting each other on Eid, would say تَقَبَّل اللَّهُ مِنَّا ومِنْك — “May God accept from you and us.”[32] It is not necessary to say this in Arabic; one may convey greetings of acceptance in any language.

Congregational Eid Prayers

The Eid Prayers are a very special and unique act of worship that we only get to experience twice in a year, followed by a khuṭbah (sermon) addressing the entire Muslim Community. We often find our Eid Congregations, compared to our Friday Jumuʿah Congregations, being twice as large, if not tenfold in some communities. Normally, attending the Eid Prayer is something that every single person in a household should do[33]. Every man, woman, child, and elder should actively try to attend the Eid Ṣalāh.

Missing the Eid Prayer

If someone is unable to attend their communal Eid Prayer due to illness, health and/or capacity limits, or because they arrive late and miss the congregation, they have one of two options:

Option 1:

Nothing needs to be done to make up for the missed Eid Prayer. There is no blame or sin, and no extra prayers need to be performed as a substitute.[34]

Option 2:

The Eid Prayer can be prayed at home since the communal prayer was missed. It is not necessary to do so, but it is allowed.[35] If someone does not feel comfortable performing the Eid prayers on their own at home, they do not have to. It is not required to make it up if it is missed.

It should be noted that the Eid prayer can only be performed at home by one if they were unable to make it to their communal Eid Prayer. According to the vast majority of scholars[36], it is not allowed to simply default to praying Eid Ṣalāh at home without having one of the valid excuses listed.

FAQs[37]

  1. I have to make up fasts from Ramaḍān. Can I fast them in the first nine days of Dhū al-Ḥijjah?
    1. Yes. One may fast the days of Dhū al-Ḥijjah with the intention of both Make-Up of Ramaḍān, and extra rewards of Dhū al-Ḥijjah.
  2. Should one still fast if the recommended day(s) happens to be on a Friday or a Saturday?
    1. Yes, one should still fast, even if that means fasting only on a Friday or a Saturday.[38]
  3. Can women slaughter the animal for uḍḥiyah (qurbānī)?
    1. Yes. Any muslim who is physically able to slaughter the animal is allowed to do so.
  4. Can women attend the Eid Prayers?
    1. Yes, they absolutely can and should. All women are highly encouraged to partake in the Eid Prayer with the entire community. If a woman is on her period (menses), and is not praying, then she can and still should attend, but should try and sit in any place that is not technically considered “Masjid” (i.e., outside, the lawn, tents, foyer, lobby).
  5. Do I have to attend the Eid Prayers?
    1. According to the Ḥanafīs, Eid Prayer is Necessary (wājib) for an adult male upon whom Jumu'ah is usually an obligation (farḍ). Thus, not wanting to go to the communal Eid Congregation without a valid reason is not allowed.
    2. According to the Shāfiʿīs, the Eid Prayer is highly recommended (Sunnah Muʾakkadah), thus everyone should do their best to perform it.
    3. According to the Ḥanbalīs, Eid Prayer is a Communal Obligation (Farḍ Kifāyah). So if someone is unable to make it, there is no blame or sin upon them, but everyone should still do their best to perform it.
  6. Can I attend multiple Eid Prayers?
    1. One should not partake in multiple Eid Prayers. This is not only due to religious reasons, but also because someone who has already prayed Eid Ṣalāh should allow others to have a spot at another congregation.
  7. Can I pray any extra prayers before or after Eid Ṣalāh?
    1. One should avoid praying anything but the Eid Prayers while at the place where Eid is being performed, unless one needs to make up the Fajr of that day.[39]
  8. I missed the first and/or second unit of Eid Ṣalāh, what should I do?[40]
    1. You make up the rakaʿah (unit) along with the additional takbīrs. The number of additional takbīrs can vary, but most places in Greater LA will do an additional 7 takbīrs (before recitation) in the first unit (rakʿah), and an additional 5 takbīrs (before recitation) in the second unit (rakʿah). If the unit (rakʿah) is made up without the additional takbīrs, there is no blame, and nothing additional needs to be done.
  9. I caught the first unit (rakaʿah) with the Imām, but I joined after he completed the extra takbīrs. Do I have to make them up?
    1. If possible, yes. There are 3 possible scenarios
      1. If you joined while the Imām is still standing, say the extra takbīrs individually even if the imam is reciting Qurʾān.
      2. If the Imām is in rukūʿ, but you think you have enough time to do the extra takbīrs, say the extra takbīrs and then go into rukūʿ.
      3. If the Imām is in rukūʿ, but you don’t have enough time to say the extra takbīrs and join the Imām before going into rukūʿ, join the Imām in rukūʿ and say as many of the additional takbīrs as you can while in rukūʿ[41]. If you don’t complete all the extra takbīrs and the Imām stand up from rukūʿ, stand up with the Imām. You do not have to complete the additional takbīrs in this case.
  10. Can Eid Ṣalāh be performed at the Masjid?
    1. Yes. It is completely valid. The Sunnah is to perform it in a large public open space, but if that is not available, praying at a Masjid is absolutely permissible.
  11. Can I pray Eid Ṣalāh in the street if there’s no capacity in the main prayer area?
    1. One should only pray in sections designated by their local Masjid/Community leadership. One should not pray wherever they feel like.
  12. I broke my wuḍūʾ right before or during the Eid Ṣalāh and the bathrooms are closed and/or too far. What should I do?
    1. In this case, one can perform tayammum (dry ablution). One can simply tap their hands on any earthen material (dirt, rocks, cement, uncoated marble, bricks), then wipe their face. And repeat a tap to the earthen material, and wipe the entirety of their arms (from the tip of one's fingertips up to and including the elbows).[42] If one does not have access to those materials, then they can stay seated and not pray. This person would then have a choice between not praying anything as a substitute, or by praying Eid alone at home.
  13. Can I pray behind a remote/live-streamed Imām?
    1. No. The vast majority of scholars opine that one cannot pray along with a live-streamed prayer.
  14. Can I fast on Eid?
    1. No. The Prophet ﷺ forbade us from fasting on Eid. One can resume fasting 4 days after Eid Al-Aḍḥā (the 14th of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah). See the above section titled, The 11th-13th of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah.
  15. Is it recommended to hug each other on Eid? What about 3 hugs?
    1. Hugging is something that, in our culture, is a way for Muslims to show care and express happiness. As such, it is completely allowed, and can even be considered a good action. One can and very much should hug their loved ones, and show them love and affection. Be that through one hug, or ten, or through other cultural norms.

 

Footnotes:

  1. The phrase “May Allāh preserve his legacy” is a translation for the common arabic phrase عليه السلام and refers to God honoring and preserving the legacy of His Prophets. Many people tarnish the names of Allāh’s Prophets, so this is a prayer said out of respect for them.

  2. Based on calculation, and tentative moon sighting predictions.

  3. Based on the assumption that one is not a pilgrim at Ḥajj.

  4. Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ #1162, Al-Tirmidhī, Jāmiʿ: Kitāb al-Ṣawm ʿan Rasūl Allāh ﷺ Bāb Mā Jāʾ fī Faḍl Ṣawm ʿArafah #749

  5. Abū Dāwūd, Sunan: Kitāb al-Ṣawm Bāb fī Ṣawm al-ʿAshr #2437, Al-Nasāʾī, Sunan: Kitāb al-Ṣiyām Bāb Ṣawm al-Nabī ﷺ - bi abī huwa wa ummī - wa dhikr ikhtilāf al-nāqilīn li al-khabar fī dhālik #2372, and Bād Kayf Yaṣūm thalātah Ayyām fī kull shahr wa wa dhikr ikhtilāf al-nāqilīn li al-khabar fī dhālik #2417

  6. Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: Kitāb al-ʿĪdayn Bāb Faḍl al-ʿAmal fī Ayām al-Tashrīq #969, Al-Tirmidhī, Jāmiʿ: Kitāb al-Ṣawm ʿan Rasūl Allāh ﷺ Bāb Mā Jāʾ fi al-ʿAmal fī Ayām al-Tashrīq #757, Abū Dāwūd, Sunan: Kitāb al-Ṣawm Bāb fī Ṣawm al-ʿAshr #2438, Ibn Mājah, Sunan: Kitāb al-Ṣiyām

  7. لَن يَنَالَ اللَّهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلَا دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَٰكِن يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَىٰ مِنكُمْ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ سَخَّرَهَا لَكُمْ لِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُحْسِنِينَ - 22:37

  8. This is according to the Ḥanafīs. Below is a brief overview of the differences of opinion:

    Ḥanafīs: It is an obligation on each individual.

    Mālikīs: It is a highly recommended action (sunnah muʾakkadah) for each individual and can be done for a household with certain conditions.

    Shāfiʿīs and Ḥanbalīs: It is a highly recommended action (sunnah muʾakkadah) for an individual or a household.

  9. $7,289: This is based on the gold standard. This is the price of 3oz of gold, which was checked on 5/20/24. Extra possessions: i.e., one does not need to have this much in liquid cash, but only if one’s extra possessions — such as an extra car, laptop, phone, jewelry, etc — reach or exceed this amount. This, according to Ḥanafīs, is known as niṣāb ḥirmān al-zakāh, the amount of financial assets rendering an individual ineligible to receive Zakāh.

  10. Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: Kitāb al-ʿĪdayn Bāb Kalām al-Imām wa al-Nās fī khuṭbah al-ʿĪd wa idhā suʾila al-Imām ʿan shayʾ wa huwa yakhṭub #985, Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ #1960

  11. Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ #1977, Al-Tirmidhī, Jāmiʿ: Kitāb al-Aḍāḥī ʿam Rasūl Allāh ﷺ Bāb tark akhdh al-shaʿr li man arād an yuḍaḥḥī

  12. Namely ʿAbd Allāh ibn Masʿud, ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿUmar, and ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbbas

  13. A prayer typically used for the companions of the Prophet ﷺ meaning “May God be pleased with them.”

  14. Al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Qudāmah, Al-Mughnī : Kitāb al-Aḍāḥī v. 9 p. 448-9.

  15. لِّیَشۡهَدُوا۟ مَنَـٰفِعَ لَهُمۡ وَیَذۡكُرُوا۟ ٱسۡمَ ٱللَّهِ فِیۤ أَیَّامࣲ مَّعۡلُومَـٰتٍ عَلَىٰ مَا رَزَقَهُم مِّنۢ بَهِیمَةِ ٱلۡأَنۡعَـٰمِۖ فَكُلُوا۟ مِنۡهَا وَأَطۡعِمُوا۟ ٱلۡبَاۤىِٕسَ ٱلۡفَقِیرَ- 22:28

  16. Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim #1963-5

  17. This can be in terms of a broken horn, missing ear, blindness, limp, sickness, etc. Al-Tirmidhī, Jāmiʿ: Kitāb al-Aḍāḥī ʿan Rasūl Allāh ﷺ Bāb fī al-Ḍaḥiyyah bi ʿĀḍbāʾ al-Qarn wa al-Udhun #1504, Abū Dāwūd, Sunan: Kitāb al-Ḍaḥāyā Bāb Mā Yukrah fī al-Ḍaḥāyā

  18. Al-Mawsūʿah Al-Fiqhiyyah Al-Kuwaytiyyah v. 5 p. 81-2.

  19. This includes lambs which is the term for a newborn/baby sheep, and rams which are mature male sheep. The term sheep is the name for the general genus of the animal.

  20. This is according to all 4 schools.

  21. This is according to the Ḥanafī’s and Ḥanbalīs.

  22. The Shāfiʿīs state that goats must be at least two years old.

  23. This includes cows, bulls, and buffalos.

  24. Al-Tirmidhī, Jāmiʿ: Kitāb al-Aḍāḥī ʿan Rasūl Allāh ﷺ Bāb Mā Jāʾ fī al-Ishtirāk fī al-Uḍḥiyah #1502 & Bāb fī al-Ḍaḥiyyah bi ʿĀḍbāʾ al-Qarn wa al-Udhun #1503

  25. This can also be recited by saying Allāhu Akbar (اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ) three times (3x) at the beginning instead of twice (2x).

  26. Ibn Mājah, al-Sunan Kitāb Iqāmah al-Ṣalāh wa al-Sunnah fīhā, v.1 p. 349 #1098

  27. This is, of course, if a person already has nice clothes, or has the means to buy nice clothes. If a person does not have such means and can only wear their regular clothes on Eid, there is absolutely no blame on that person.

  28. al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ Kitāb al-ʿĪdayn Bāb fī al-ʿĪdayn wa al-Tajammul fīh

  29. Al-Tirmidhī, Jāmiʿ: Abwāb al-ʿĪdayn ʿan Rasūl Allāh ﷺ Bāb mā jāʾa fī al-akl yawm al-Fiṭr qabl al-khurūj #542

  30. The Ḥanafīs prefer to only say Allāhu Akbar twice in both instances, as opposed to thrice and then twice. This is based on the the answer of the tābiʿī, Abū Isḥāq, who was asked by his student Sharīk, “How would ʿAli (raḍiya Allāh ʿanh) and ʿAbd Allāh ibn Masʿūd (raḍiya Allāh ʿanh) recite the takbīrāt of Eid?” Abū Isḥāq responded with the above phrase, with Allāhu Akbar repeated twice in both places. — Ibn Abī Shaybah, Muṣannaf, Ḥadīth #5653.

  31. al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ Kitāb al-ʿĪdayn Bāb man khālfa al-Ṭarīq idhā rajaʿa yawm al-ʿĪd

  32. al-Bayhaqī, al-Sunan al-Kubrā Kitāb Ṣalāh al-ʿĪdayn Bāb m ruwya fī qawl al-nās yawm al-ʿĪd baʿḍuhum li baʿḍ taqabbal Allāh minnā wa mink

  33. According to the Ḥanafīs, the Eid Prayer is wājib (mandatory) for the one whom the Friday Prayer is obligatory (farḍ) upon. According to the Mālikīs and Shāfʿīs it is sunnah muʾakkadah (emphasized sunnah). According to the Ḥanbalīs it is a communal obligation (farḍ kifāyah) — Al-Mawsūʿah Al-Fiqhiyyah Al-Kuwaytiyyah v. 31 p. 114.

  34. This is according to the Ḥanafī school.

  35. This is according to the Mālikī, Shāfiʿī, and Ḥanbalī schools. This is based on a narration by ʿUbayd Allāh ibn Abī Bakr ibn Anas (raḥimahum Allāh), saying that if his grandfather, Anas ibn Mālik (raḍiya Allāh ʿanh) - the companion and servant of the Prophet ﷺ - missed the communal Eid Prayer, he would gather his family together and would lead them in Eid Ṣalāh just like the large communal congregations. Al-Bayhaqī, al-Sunan al-Kubrā Bāb Ṣalāh al-ʿĪdayn Sunnah Ahl al-Islām ḥayth kānū #6237, v. 3 p. 427.

  36. This is according to the Ḥanafī, Mālikī, and Ḥanbalī schools, and some Shāfiʿī scholars.

  37. For brevity, questions that can have multiple opinions that have not been addressed earlier in the article will only be given the Ḥanafī position.

  38. There are narrations wherein the Prophet ﷺ said, “None of you should fast on Friday, unless you also fast the day before or after.” (Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ K. al-Ṣawm B. Ṣawm Yawm al-Jumuʿah, fa idhā Aṣbaḥ Ṣāʾimā Yawm al-Jumuʿah fa ʿalayhi an Yufṭir. Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ #1143a-1144b) However, most scholars have understood this to mean singling out any random Friday (or every Friday) for fasting, because it is the day of Friday, or to ensure that people do not think it is necessary (wājib) to fast on Friday. Since people are fasting because it is ʿĀshūrāʾ (or any other recommended day), that dislike or prohibition would not apply in the first place. For more information, see Al-Mawsūʿah Al-Fiqhiyyah Al-Kuwaytiyyah v. 28 p. 96.

  39. This is according to the Ḥanafīs, and Ḥanbalīs. The Shāfiʿīs do allow it, as do the Mālikīs as long as it’s not at the Eid Grounds.

    As for praying extra prayers at home, there are more details and differences of opinion. In sum: Ḥanafīs consider it disliked to pray extra nafl prayers at home only before Eid (perhaps an exception can be made if it’s someone’s daily habit to do so). But anything after at home is fine. Mālikīs consider it permissible before and after as long as it’s not at the Eid Grounds. Shāfiʿīs allow it unconditionally. Ḥanbalīs consider it disliked unconditionally. مذاهب العلماء في النافلة عند صلاة العيد وأثناء الخطبة

  40. For more details regarding questions 8 and 9, please see: The Fiqh of Eid al-Fitr & Eid al-Adha. Al-Ṭaḥṭāwī, Ḥāshiyah, p. 534.

  41. This will be done just by moving the tongue and lips. One should not be raising their hands in this scenario.

  42. According to the Ḥanafī school.

Islamic Guide to Solar Eclipse Prayer and FAQs 2024

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين

اللهم اجعلنا منهم

With the Name of The One True God, Allāh, The Infinitely Caring, Eternally Compassionate. We sincerely praise and thank God to the highest extent, and ask Him to bless, protect, honor, and compliment our Prophet and Messenger Muḥammad, his family, his companions, and those that diligently follow them until the end of times. Dear God, please include us from amongst them.

On the morning of Monday, April 8th 2024, a solar eclipse will start to occur around 8:42 a.m. (PT) and will continue until around 1:52 p.m. (PT). It will be visible across Southern California. A solar eclipse is when the physical disc of the moon covers and eclipses the physical disc of the sun.[1] This is an extremely rare occurrence and is extremely dangerous to view.

For more eclipse related details, please see:

  1. NASA: 2024 Total Solar Eclipse
  2. Time and Date: April 8, 2024 — Great North American Eclipse (Total Solar Eclipse)

Timings:[2]

Eclipse Stages Worldwide Local Time in Los Angeles
First location to see the partial eclipse begin Apr 8 at 8:42:15 am
First location to see the full eclipse begin Apr 8 at 9:38:52 am
Maximum Eclipse Apr 8 at 11:17:21 am
Last location to see the full eclipse end Apr 8 at 12:55:35 pm
Last location to see the partial eclipse end Apr 8 at 1:52:19 pm

Solar Eclipse from the Sunnah

We know that a solar eclipse occurred once during the lifetime of our Prophet Muḥammad ﷺ,[3] so let us see what he ﷺ said and did. The Prophet ﷺ said, “The sun and the moon are two of the many signs of Allāh. They do not eclipse on their own due to death or birth of anyone. So when you see an eclipse [do the following].”[4] In multiple other narrations, the Prophet ﷺ said, “rush to prayer out of fear (فَافْزَعُوا إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ)”. Here is a compilation of the multiple different actions the Prophet ﷺ encouraged his community to do upon seeing an eclipse:

  1. Pray to Allāh, make duʿāʾ, supplicate to Him (فَادْعُوا اللَّهَ)[5]
  2. Declare Allāh’s supremacy by saying “AllāhuAkbar” (وَكَبِّرُوا)[6]
  3. Pray the ritual prayer (وَصَلُّوا)[7]
  4. Donate (وَتَصَدَّقُوا)[8]
  5. Free slaves (بِالْعَتَاقَةِ)[9]
  6. Rush to remember and mention Allāh out of fear (فَافْزَعُوا إِلَى ذِكْرِهِ)[10]
  7. Seek Allāh’s forgiveness (وَاسْتِغْفَارِهِ)[11]

We should try to be in congregation at our local masjid for the Prayer of the Solar Eclipse (Ṣalāh Al-Kusūf). Ideally, the imām will lead the congregation in 2 very long units (rakʿatān) of prayer. If you are unable to pray in congregation, then try to pray 2 units on your own, and try to make them as long as possible. The prayer should ideally last the duration of the eclipse. If the eclipse has not ended by the time the prayer is over, proceed to make extra supplications (duʿāʾ) and remember and mention Allāh (dhikr) until the eclipse finishes.[12]

This should also be a time of fear and reflection. Our Beloved Prophet ﷺ had a heightened state of fear of Allāh ﷻ during the eclipse.[13] He ﷺ also reminded us that the sun and the moon are creations and indicators of God ﷻ, so when we see them (especially in such an intense state), we should remember Allāh and seek His Forgiveness.[14] It is also a time for us to engage in charitable works, especially helping those in need.[15]

We may be tempted to go outside and stare (with polarized glasses) at the eclipse, and that makes sense since this is a very rare sight. However, when it first starts, take a moment to (safely) look at it (if you must), and then act like the companion ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Samurah (raḍiya Allāh ʿanh[16]) who was practicing archery when he noticed the eclipse, and then decided to run the Prophet ﷺ to see how he ﷺ would act during such a situation.[17] If you are worried about “missing it”, do not worry, because NASA and Time and Date will have all the videos, pictures, and diagrams one could ask for.

Also, let us not forget the honor and rank given to our Prophet ﷺ during this incident. This was one of those special times that Allāh ﷻ chose to give His Beloved Messenger ﷺ a glimpse of the Hereafter.[18] Interestingly enough, when we read those narrations, the Prophet Muḥammad ﷺ said that he saw Heaven and tried to grab a cluster of grapes, and also saw The Fire. It is as if Allāh ﷻ opened up a literal portal into the Heavenly dimension for His Prophet ﷺ to enter. Yet, our dear Messenger ﷺ chose to (once again) stay with us, his ummah, hoping to continue guiding us and teaching us — because he ﷺ loves us and wants to meet us safe and sound in Paradise—, despite the endless bounties awaiting him ﷺ on the other side.

At the same time, this was an event of loss for our Prophet ﷺ. The death of his dear son, Ibrāhīm (raḍiya Allāh ʿanh), coincided with the eclipse. Because of that, some people felt reassured of their pagan belief that eclipses were, on their own, a cosmic sign of the birth and death of important people. However, our Prophet ﷺ taught us that this is not the case. As we mentioned before, he ﷺ said that they are simply indicators towards Allāh. So when we see them, remember Allāh and turn to Him. And during the eclipse, continue to pray until the eclipse ends. Again, look at how much our beloved Prophet ﷺ chose to care for us. He ﷺ did not isolate himself at this difficult moment. Rather, he ﷺ still stayed amongst his companions (raḍiya Allāh ʿanhum) to teach them, advise them, and guide them to what pleases Allāh ﷻ. What a Messenger we have, ﷺ!

We have a great opportunity before us to (briefly) witness a spectacular sight of the magnificence of Allāh ﷻ, and to follow a rare sunnah of our Prophet ﷺ.

The Ideal Solar Eclipse Prayer:[19]

  1. It should be prayed in congregation at the masjid
  2. It should last the duration of the eclipse
  3. Every step of the prayer (standing, recitation, bowing [rukūʾ], placing the forehead on the floor [sujūd]) should be very long
  4. An announcement should be made calling people to the masjid[20]

FAQs:

  1. Should a sermon (khuṭbah) be given?
    • No.[21] However a short reminder should be given because the Prophet ﷺ did so.[22]
  2. Should there be two sessions of recitation (qirāʾatān) and two bows (rukūʿ) performed in each unit?
    1. Short answer: there is a difference of opinion. Follow whatever your prayer leader (imām) does. If you are praying on your own, and do not feel comfortable with the eclipse prayer procedure, pray it like any normal two unit optional prayer. Note that the vast majority of scholars said that a standard two unit prayer (rakʿatān) with each unit (rakʿah) consisting of one standing (qiyām), one recitation (qirāʾah), one bow (rukūʿ), and two placements of the forehead on the floor (sajdah) will suffice.[23]
    2. Long answer:[24] the Mālikīs, Shāfiʿīs, and Ḥanbalīs (raḥimahum Allāh[25]) are of the opinion that the eclipse prayer is as follows: standing (qiyām) and recitation (qirāʾah),[26] bow (rukūʿ), another standing (qiyām) and recitation (qirāʾah),[27] another bow (rukūʿ), two placements of the forehead on the ground (sajdatayn) — repeat. This is based on the explicit aḥādīth of Ibn ʿAbbās (raḍiya Allāh ʿanhumā) found in Ṣaḥih Al-Bukhārī and Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim. The Ḥanafīs (raḥimahum Allāh) are of the opinion that the eclipse prayer is prayed exactly like another optional two-unit (nafl) prayer without any extra additions. This is based on the implicit aḥādīth of Abū Bakrah (raḍiya Allāh ʿanh) found in Ṣaḥih Al-Bukhārī[28] and his explicit ḥadīth found in Sunan Al-Nasāʾī.[29]
  3. How many units (rakʿah) are to be prayed?
    • Two (2) units (rakʿatān)[30]
  4. What if the eclipse occurs during a time in which it is disliked or prohibited to pray?
    • Do not pray during the prohibited times (during sunrise, zenith, and sunset), nor the disliked times (after having prayed Fajr until sunrise, and after having prayed ʿAṣr until sunset).[31] These times are very short compared to eclipses, so they can easily be worked around. For example, the eclipse on 4/8/24 is well after sunrise, so there is no issue there. However, the zenith of the sun does occur during the eclipse. But it is towards the end of the eclipse. The prayer can safely be concluded before the zenith (i.e., when Ẓuhr enters), while still allowing for up-to 4 hours of time available for the eclipse prayer.
  5. How short or long does the prayer have to be?
    • Ideally the prayer should last from the start until the end of the eclipse.[32] However, it can be shorter. If the prayer is even 5, or 15, or 30 minutes, that is acceptable. The full duration of the eclipse is a little over 5 hours, which is not feasible for most people.[33] The full eclipse will last for 3 hours, but that will come into a prohibited prayer time, so see the question about this issue.
  6. Should the recitation be aloud or silent?
    1. Short answer: aloud.
    2. Long answer: there is a difference of opinion. Perhaps, despite the differences found among the Ṣaḥābah (companions - raḍiya Allāh ʿanhum), Tābiʿūn (students of the companions - raḥimahum Allāh), and Fuqahāʾ (jurists - raḥimahum Allāh), we can say that it would be better for the recitation to be aloud for the sake of the focus and devotion of the people praying.
      • Here is a brief summary of the discussion.[34] Al-Imām Abū Ḥanīfah, the Mālikīs, and the Shāfiʿīs (raḥimahum Allāh) are of the opinion that the recitation should be silent. That is because Ibn ʿAbbās (raḍiya Allāh ʿanhumā) said that, “the Prophet ﷺ led the solar eclipse prayer and we did not hear his recitation (فَلَمْ نَسْمَعْ لَهُ صَوْتًا).” Al-Imām Aḥmad, Al-Imām Abū Yusuf, and in a statement attributed to Al-Imām Mālik (raḥimahum Allāh) are of the opinion that the recitation should be aloud. That is beaucase that has been narrated from ʿAlī (raḍiya Allāh ʿanh), and ʿAbd Allāh ibn Zayd did that in the presence of Al-Barāʾ ibn ʿĀzib and Zayd ibn Arqam (raḍiya Allāh ʿanhumā). And it has also been narrated that ʿĀʾishah (raḍiya Allāh ʿanhā) said, “the Prophet ﷺ led the solar eclipse prayer and recited aloud (وَجَهَرَ فِيهَا بِالْقِرَاءَةِ).” And also due the fact that it is an extra option (nafl) prayer that is meant to be prayed in congregation (jamāʿah) and audible recitation is a recommended action (sunnah) of these prayers, like the seeking-of-rain (istisqāʾ).

Footnotes

  1. As opposed to the shadow of the earth blocking and eclipsing the physical disc of the moon from sunlight in a lunar eclipse
  2. https://www.timeanddate.com/eclipse/solar/2024-april-8
  3. Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف, Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف
  4. Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف باب الصَّدَقَةِ فِي الْكُسُوفِ, Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف باب مَنْ أَحَبَّ الْعَتَاقَةَ فِي كُسُوفِ الشَّمْسِ
  10. Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف باب الذِّكْرِ فِي الْكُسُوفِ, Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف
  11. Ibid.
  12. Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف باب الذِّكْرِ فِي الْكُسُوفِ
  13. Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ #912
  14. Ibid
  15. Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف باب الصَّدَقَةِ فِي الْكُسُوفِ
  16. May God be pleased with him
  17. Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف
  18. Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف باب صَلاَةِ الْكُسُوفِ جَمَاعَةً
  19. Al-Mawsūʿah Al-Fiqhiyyah Al-Kuwaytiyyah v. 27 p. 254-5
  20. The Prophet ﷺ taught the companions to announce, “الصَّلاَة جَامِعَة - gather for prayer”. Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف باب النِّدَاءِ بِالصَّلاَةُ جَامِعَةٌ فِي الْكُسُوفِ, Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف
  21. Al-Mawsūʿah Al-Fiqhiyyah Al-Kuwaytiyyah v. 27 p. 255-6
  22. Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف, Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف
  23. Al-Mawsūʿah Al-Fiqhiyyah Al-Kuwaytiyyah v. 27 p. 256-7
  24. Ibid.
  25. May God have compassion on them
  26. Sūrah Al-Fātiḥah and another Sūrah
  27. Sūrah Al-Fātiḥah and another Sūrah
  28. There are at least 3 narrations like this in Ṣaḥīḥ Al-Bukhārī
  29. فَصَلَّى رَكْعَتَيْنِ كَمَا يُصَلُّونَ, Al-Nasāʾī, Sunan: كتاب الكسوف باب الأَمْرِ بِالدُّعَاءِ فِي الْكُسُوفِ
  30. Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف, Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف
  31. Al-Mawsūʿah Al-Fiqhiyyah Al-Kuwaytiyyah v. 27 p. 253-4
  32. Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف, Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ: كتاب الكسوف
  33. Also, food for thought, this is the scientific start of the eclipse. It is possible that the Prophet ﷺ and the companions did not notice the eclipse from the scientific start, but rather 15, 30, or 60 minutes later, when the sight of the sky had a drastic change. This is just a thought of mine without any research. Allāh knows best.
  34. Al-Mawsūʿah Al-Fiqhiyyah Al-Kuwaytiyyah v. 27 p. 257

Eid al-Fitr 2024: Essential Practices and FAQs for a Blessed Celebration

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين

اللهم اجعلنا منهم

With the Name of The One True God, Allāh, The Infinitely Caring, Eternally Compassionate. We sincerely praise and thank God to the highest extent, and ask Him to bless, protect, honor, and compliment our Prophet and Messenger Muḥammad, his family, his companions, and those that diligently follow them until the end of times. Dear God, please include us from amongst them.

As we reach the end of this beautiful and amazing month of Ramaḍān, we ask Allāh to accept from us, increase us in goodness, and to be happy and pleased with us. And we ask Him to allow us to reach the special day of Eid al-Fiṭr so we can attend the Eid Prayer, pray together, declare Allāh’s Greatness, and greet our beloved family, friends, and community members.

Overview

Eid al-Fiṭr is the first of the two Islamic holidays in the lunar year (the second being Eid al-Aḍḥā). The day celebrates the end of fasting during the blessed month of Ramaḍān. It is a day wherein we typically gather for a congregational ritual prayer and sermon in the morning, often followed by meeting with friends and family to celebrate the day by exchanging gifts and eating together.

Ṣadaqah al-Fiṭr/Zakāh al-Fiṭr

“Zakāh al-Fiṭr,” also known as “Ṣadaqah al-Fiṭr,” is a specific charity that is due before the Eid prayer. It is a means for the mistakes that we made while fasting to be overlooked, and for the needy to have a meal. Ibn ʿAbbās (raḍiy Allāh ʿanhumā[1]) told us that the Prophet ﷺ mandated Zakāh al-Fiṭr as a means to clean and overlook the useless and obscene speech of those who fasted, and a means of food for the poor.[2]

The Prophet ﷺ has taught us that those Muslims who are able to pay[3] Zakāh al-Fiṭr must pay it[4]. The amount that is to be given differs slightly based on the foodstuff calculation, but is safely estimated to be around $15[5]. It is due upon each and every Muslim - man or woman, child or adult. The head of the household is responsible to pay it on behalf of all non-adult Muslim children. The head of the household can also pay on behalf of everyone in the house. If one has not paid before the prayer, one is still required to pay after the prayer.

Recommended Actions

Eid is strongly rooted in declaring the greatness of our Lord and Master, Allāh ﷻ. As God Himself says, “[It is so that] you declare God to be the absolute greatest because He has guided you, and so that you are grateful.”[6] With that comes the emulation of both the mindset and actions of our Prophet Muḥammad ﷺ. Here are a number of things that the Prophet ﷺ taught us to do on this beautiful day:

  1. Be extra clean. Shower (ghusl), brush your teeth, use miswāk, and smell good. The Prophet ﷺ compared Friday to Eid and told us: “This day [Friday] is a day of Eid and celebration. So whoever comes to the Friday prayer should bathe, apply perfume if they have any, and use the miswāk (tooth-stick).”[7] The Prophet ﷺ told us to be extra clean because it is an “Eid.” Therefore, on Eid al-Fiṭr, we should follow this sunnah.
  2. Wear nice, clean clothes. It does not have to be new, but it should be clean, ironed, and nicer than your daily outfit[8]. In following this recommendation, ʿUmar (raḍiy Allāh ʿanh[9]) once bought a nice outfit to give to the Prophet ﷺ and said, “wear it to look nice on Eid.”[10]
  3. Eat an odd number of dates before the Eid prayer. The young companion of the Prophet ﷺ, Anas (raḍiy Allāh ʿanh), taught us that the Prophet ﷺ would not leave his house for Eid al-Fiṭr prayer until he ﷺ ate an odd number of dates.[11] If dates are unavailable, one may eat anything sweet to fulfill this sunnah.
  4. Recite the takbīrāt of Eid. That is to say — اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَاَللهُ أَكْبَرُ اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ — Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, lā ilāha illā Allāh, Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, wa li-llāh al-Ḥamd. God is Greater, God is Greater, God is Greater. There is no God except Allāh. God is Greater, God is Greater. The most perfect and complete praise and thanks belongs solely to God.[12]

It should be recited happily and aloud.[13]

  1. Return home from a different route. The companion, Jābir (raḍiy Allāh ʿanh), told us that the Prophet ﷺ would take a different route when going to and returning from the Eid prayer area.[14] Someone can make their way to the Prayer Area via the freeway, and return via surface streets, for example. Or head towards the Prayer Area from one direction, and return home via the opposite direction.
  2. Meet and greet others with phrases of acceptance. Some of the Companions (raḍiy Allāh ʿanhum), upon meeting each other on Eid, would say تَقَبَّل اللَّهُ مِنّا ومِنك — “May God accept from you and us.”[15] It is not necessary to say this in Arabic; one may convey greetings of acceptance in any language.

FAQs[16]

  1. Can women attend the Eid Prayers?
    • Yes, they absolutely can and should. All women are highly encouraged to partake in the Eid Prayer with the entire community. If a woman is on her period (menses), and is not praying, then she can and still should attend, but should try and sit in any place that is not technically considered “Masjid” (i.e., outside, the lawn, tents, foyer, lobby).
  2. Can I pray Eid Ṣalāh at home if I personally don’t feel comfortable bringing my elderly parent(s) and/or child(ren) and don’t want to pray without my family?
    1. According to the Ḥanafīs, Eid Prayer is Necessary (wājib) for an adult male upon whom Jumu'ah is usually an obligation (farḍ). Not wanting to go to the communal Eid Congregation without one's family is not a valid reason for that individual to not pray with the Communal Eid Congregation, nor to pray at home. This is in regards to someone being uncomfortable bringing a member of the household, as opposed to someone being advised by a medical doctor that leaving the home would put other members of the household at risk.
    2. According to the Shāfiʿīs, Eid Prayer is Sunnah Muʾakkadah. Someone who is unable to bring their family to the Communal Eid Prayers may pray the Eid Prayer at home. However, they should not give an Eid Khuṭbah (Sermon) in their congregation at home.
    3. According to the Ḥanbalīs, Eid Prayer is a Communal Obligation (Farḍ Kifāyah). So if someone is unable to make it, there is no blame or sin upon them at all. If someone is able to attend the communal Eid Prayer and are able to leave other members of the household at home, then they should but are not obligated to do so. But if they are not able to leave other members of the household at home, then that will be a valid reason for them to miss the Eid Prayer, and thus, they can pray the Eid Prayer at home (for more information see question #5).
  3. Do I have to attend the Eid Prayers?
    • See question #2.
  4. Can I pray Eid Prayers at home by myself or with my family?
    • One cannot default to praying Eid Ṣalāh at home if there none of the above-listed excuses are present. Details can be found in this article https://iokchess.com/eid-al-fitr-in-2021/ in the section titled, Can I hold my own Eid Prayer at home?
  5. How do I perform the Eid Prayers?
    • One should only be performing the Eid Prayers on their own if they were not able to attend their local congregation. A detailed overview can be found here: How to Spend Eid in Quarantine.
  6. Can I attend multiple Eid Prayers?
    • One should not partake in multiple Eid Prayers. This is not only due to religious reasons, but also because someone who has already prayed Eid Ṣalāh should allow others to have a spot at another congregation.
  7. Can I pray any extra prayers before or after Eid Ṣalāh?
    • One should avoid praying anything but the Eid Prayers while at the place where Eid is being performed, unless one needs to make up the Fajr of that day.[17]
  8. I missed the first and/or second unit of Eid Ṣalāh, what should I do?[18]
    • You make up the rakaʿah (unit) along with the additional takbīrs. The number of additional takbīrs can vary, but most places in Greater LA will do an additional 7 takbīrs (before recitation) in the first unit (rakʿah), and an additional 5 takbīrs (before recitation) in the second unit (rakʿah). If the unit (rakʿah) is made up without the additional takbīrs, there is no blame, and nothing additional needs to be done.
  9. I caught the first unit (rakaʿah) with the Imām, but I joined after he completed the extra takbīrs. Do I have to make them up?
    • If possible, yes. There are 3 possible scenarios
      1. If you joined while the Imām is still standing, say the extra takbīrs individually even if the imam is reciting Qurʾān.
      2. If the Imām is in rukūʿ, but you think you have enough time to do the extra takbīrs, say the extra takbīrs and then go into rukūʿ.
      3. If the Imām is in rukūʿ, but you don’t have enough time to say the extra takbīrs and join the Imām before going into rukūʿ, join the Imām in rukūʿ and say as many of the additional takbīrs as you can while in rukūʿ[19]. If you don’t complete all the extra takbīrs and the Imām stand up from rukūʿ, stand up with the Imām. You do not have to complete the additional takbīrs in this case.
  10. Can Eid Ṣalāh be performed at the Masjid?
    • Yes. It is completely valid. The Sunnah is to perform it in a large public open space, but if that is not available, praying at a Masjid is absolutely permissible.
  11. Can I pray Eid Ṣalāh in the street if there’s no capacity in the main prayer area?
    • One should only pray in sections designated by their local Masjid/Community leadership. One should not pray wherever they feel like.
  12. I broke my wuḍūʾ right before or during the Eid Ṣalāh and the bathrooms are closed and/or too far. What should I do?
    • In this case, one can perform tayammum (dry ablution). One can simply tap their hands on any earthen material (dirt, rocks, cement, uncoated marble, bricks), then wipe their face. And repeat a tap to the earthen material, and wipe the entirety of their arms (from the tip of one's fingertips up to and including the elbows).[20] If one does not have access to those materials, then they can stay seated and not pray. This person would then have a choice between not praying anything as a substitute, or by praying Eid alone at home. Details can be found in this article https://iokchess.com/eid-al-fitr-in-2021/ in the section titled, Should I attend the Eid Prayers?
  13. Can I pray behind a remote/live-streamed Imām?
    • No. The vast majority of scholars opine that one cannot pray along with a live-streamed prayer.
  14. To whom should I give my Ṣadaqah al-Fiṭr?
    • It can be given to any organization that will distribute it to those who are in need. It can also be given directly to an individual who is unable to provide food for his or herself.
  15. Can I fast on Eid?
    • No. The Prophet ﷺ forbade us from fasting on Eid. One can resume fasting from the day after (the 2nd of Shawwāl).
  16. Is it recommended to hug each other on Eid? What about 3 hugs?
    • Hugging is something that, in our culture, is a way for Muslims to show care and express happiness. As such, it is completely allowed, and can even be considered a good action. One can and very much should hug their loved ones, and show them love and affection. Be that through one hug, or ten, or through other cultural norms.

Footnotes

  1. A prayer typically used for the companions of the Prophet ﷺ meaning “May God be pleased with them.”
  2. Abū Dāwūd, al-Sunan Kitāb al-Zakāh Bāb Zakāh al-Fiṭr
  3. This exact amount is differed upon. The Ḥanafīs consider this to be the amount that makes one ineligible for Zakāh. This amount is known as niṣāb ḥirmān al-zakāh, meaning that one has non-zakātable possessions that meet or exceed the niṣāb of around $6,500 (as of 03/10/2024). The Mālikīs consider this amount to be the ability to pay it. The Shāfiʿīs and Ḥanbalīs consider this amount to be when an individual has more than the bare necessities in terms of food for his or herself and their dependents. — Al-Mawsūʿah Al-Fiqhiyyah Al-Kuwaytiyyah v. 23 p. 337.
  4. This is according to the vast majority of scholars. Some Mālikis consider it sunnah. — Al-Mawsūʿah Al-Fiqhiyyah Al-Kuwaytiyyah v. 23 p. 336.
  5. See https://fiqhcouncil.org/fidyah-and-zakat-al-fitr/
  6. 2:185 — وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَىٰكُمۡ وَلَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡكُرُونَ
  7. Ibn Mājah, al-Sunan Kitāb Iqāmah al-Ṣalāh wa al-Sunnah fīhā, v.1 p. 349 #1098
  8. This is, of course, if a person already has nice clothes, or has the means to buy nice clothes. If a person does not have such means and can only wear their regular clothes on Eid, there is absolutely no blame on that person.
  9. This is a prayer usually said after mentioning a companion of the Prophet Muḥammad ﷺ which means: May Allāh be pleased with them.
  10. al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ Kitāb al-ʿĪdayn Bāb fī al-ʿĪdayn wa al-Tajammul fīh
  11. al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ Kitāb al-ʿĪdayn Bāb al-Akl Yawm al-Fiṭr Qabl al-Khurūj
  12. The Ḥanafīs prefer to only say Allāhu Akbar twice in both instances, as opposed to thrice and then twice. This is based on the the answer of the tābiʿī, Abū Isḥāq, who was asked by his student Sharīk, “How would ʿAli (raḍiy Allāh ʿanh) and ʿAbd Allāh ibn Masʿūd (raḍiy Allāh ʿanh) recite the takbīrāt of Eid?” Abū Isḥāq responded with the above phrase, with Allāhu Akbar repeated twice in both places. — Ibn Abī Shaybah, Muṣannaf, Ḥadīth #5653.
  13. Although Abū Ḥanīfah (raḥimahu Allāh - May Allāh have mercy on him) preferred that it be recited silently on Eid al-Fiṭr, his students Abū Yūsuf (raḥimahu Allāh - May Allāh have mercy on him) and Muḥammad (raḥimahu Allāh - May Allāh have mercy on him) preferred that it be recited aloud. — al-Qudūrī, Mukhtaṣar Kitāb al-Ṣalāh Bāb Ṣalāh al-ʿĪd, p. 41.
  14. al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ Kitāb al-ʿĪdayn Bāb man khālfa al-Ṭarīq idhā rajaʿa yawm al-ʿĪd
  15. al-Bayhaqī, al-Sunan al-Kubrā Kitāb Ṣalāh al-ʿĪdayn Bāb m ruwya fī qawl al-nās yawm al-ʿĪd baʿḍuhum li baʿḍ taqabbal Allāh minnā wa mink
  16. For brevity, questions that can have multiple opinions that have not been addressed earlier in the article will only be given the Ḥanafī position.
  17. This is according to the Ḥanafīs, and Ḥanbalīs. The Shāfiʿīs do allow it, as do the Mālikīs as long as it’s not at the Eid Grounds.

    As for praying extra prayers at home, there are more details and differences of opinion. In sum: Ḥanafīs consider it disliked to pray extra nafl prayers at home only before Eid (perhaps an exception can be made if it’s someone’s daily habit to do so). But anything after at home is fine. Mālikīs consider it permissible before and after as long as it’s not at the Eid Grounds. Shāfiʿīs allow it unconditionally. Ḥanbalīs consider it disliked unconditionally. مذاهب العلماء في النافلة عند صلاة العيد وأثناء الخطبة

  18. For more details regarding questions 8 and 9, please see: The Fiqh of Eid al-Fitr & Eid al-Adha. Al-Ṭaḥṭāwī, Ḥāshiyah, p. 534.
  19. This will be done just by moving the tongue and lips. One should not be raising their hands in this scenario.
  20. According to the Ḥanafī school.